Macmillan, Hachette Book Group, Simon & Schuster and Penguin have refused to sell e-books to libraries. HarperCollins imposed a limit of 26 loans per e-book, and Random House raised e-book prices between 100 percent and 200 percent.
Publishers have expressed concern about losing profits and royalties for authors. Librarians argue publishers are not losing sales, citing a variety of studies.
As part of a project by the Library Journal, a study found 50 percent of library users buy books by an author they were first introduced to at the library.
“There’s a common myth out there, especially among some publishers, that every book sold to a library translates into lost sales to private citizens,” said Bill Young, spokesman for the Oklahoma Department of Libraries.
“While some publishers may believe libraries cut into sales, most authors know how important libraries are to promoting their books, connecting them with readers and ultimately driving their book sales.